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超級梟龍成功首飛對巴基斯坦有何意義巴基斯坦空軍
2020-01-06 23:27   来源:  www.rozanews.com   评论:0 点击:

超級梟龍成功首飛對巴基斯坦有何意義巴基斯坦空軍近期,巴基斯坦JF-17“閃電”Block3(中國稱“梟龍”)戰

  近期,巴基斯坦JF-17“閃電”Block3(中國稱“梟龍”)戰機首架原型機成功首飛。從照片上來看,這架編號為“3000”的飛機,安裝了大量成熟的先進機載設備,有效地拓展了作戰能力。

The first prototype of Pakistan's JF-17 Lightning Block 3, known to China as the Owl Dragon, recently made its debut. From the photo, the aircraft, numbered \"3000\", is equipped with a large number of mature advanced airborne equipment, effectively expanding combat capabilities.

  作為目前巴基斯坦空軍主力機型的JF-17“閃電”戰機,JF-17Block3是其分批次進行升級研發思路的最新體現。從某種意義上看,JF-17Block3是JF-17系列中真正意義上接近代水平的戰斗機(國內標準第三代改進型)的一款飛機。

JF-17Block3, the current main model of the Pakistan Air Force, is the latest manifestation of its ideas for upgrading in batches. In a sense, JF-17Block 3 is an aircraft in the JF-17 series that is truly close to the generational level of fighter jets (the third-generation modified version of the domestic standard).

  相比于此前JF-17系列型號,JF-17Block3戰機主要改進了全新的平視顯示器、航電系統和先進導彈逼近告警裝置,不過首飛時未安裝機載雷達。

Compared with the previous JF-17 models, JF-17Block3s have improved their new level-view, avionics and advanced missile approach alarms, but no airborne radars were installed when they were first flown.

  JF-17Block3戰機安裝的全新平視顯示器是第三代廣角全息顯示器的改進型,由于是最新改進型,整體重量進一步縮小,視場范圍進一步提升,某些性能甚至媲美殲-20戰機所裝備的平視顯示器。平視顯示器在整個飛行過程中極為重要,其綜合程度和自動化程度不僅關系到飛行員的信息獲取,還關系到飛機的飛行安全。良好的平視顯示器在各類飛行活動中,尤其是空中格斗時,能夠有效提升飛行員反應速度。

The JF-17Block3's new flat-out display is an improved version of the third-generation wide-angle holographic display, which is even more capable than the J-20's with a reduced overall weight and increased field of view as a result of the latest improvements. The level-view display is very important in the whole flight process, and its comprehensive degree and automation degree are not only related to the pilot's information acquisition, but also to the flight safety of the aircraft. A good level monitor can effectively improve the response speed of pilots in all kinds of flight activities, especially in air combat.

  可以看出,JF-17系列戰機的每一項改進幾乎都是盡可能地貼近實戰,先進導彈逼近告警裝置的加裝也是出于這樣的考慮。隨著各種防空導彈和空空導彈性能的不斷提高,戰機在空中收到的威脅不斷增加。面對幾倍音速飛行和來襲方位不確定的導彈,給予飛行員的反應時間只有區區數秒。導彈逼近告警裝置則是戰機作為對抗前端,是戰機獲取威脅信息,啟動各類干擾手段,進行戰術規避的重要保障,能夠幫助飛行員在空中格斗、低空突防、對地攻擊等情況下高效地應對來襲導彈。

It can be seen that almost every improvement in the JF-17 series of warplanes is as close as possible to actual combat, and the installation of advanced missile approach alarm devices is due to this consideration. As the performance of various anti-aircraft and air-to-air missiles continues to improve, the threat to warplanes in the air continues to increase. In the face of several times more sonic flight and incoming missile location uncertainty, the pilot was given a reaction time of only a few seconds. The missile approach warning device is a front-end combat aircraft, which is an important guarantee for the aircraft to obtain threat information, start all kinds of interference means and carry out tactical evasion, which can help pilots to deal with incoming missiles efficiently in the case of air combat, low altitude penetration, ground attack and so on.

  此前出于成本、戰機定位等因素考慮,JF-17Block1和Block2戰機并未裝備像Block3這樣的分布式光學孔徑導彈逼近告警裝置這類設備,但隨著巴基斯坦空軍近年來面臨來自印度的戰略壓力越來越大,在戰機上裝備這類裝置已經成為了巴空軍的必然選擇。

Previously, for reasons of cost and aircraft positioning, JF-171 and Block2 aircraft were not equipped with distributed optical aperture missile approach warning devices such as Block3, but as Pakistan's air force has come under increasing strategic pressure from India in recent years, it has become a necessary choice for the Pakistani air force to equip them on board.

  目前試飛JF-17Block3戰機還沒安裝機載雷達。根據巴基斯坦官方信息,該機將配備有源相控陣雷達,型號在KLJ-7A和LKF601E兩種雷達中選擇。無論哪一款雷達,其探測距離都不會低于150公里,配合改進的先進航電系統以及各類空地導彈、反艦導彈、空空導彈、精確制導炸彈,完全能夠實現對空、對地、對海的攻擊能力,成為巴基斯坦空軍裝備序列中的中堅力量。尤其是在奪取空中優勢任務中,JF-17Block3戰機掛載的PL-15遠距空空導彈射程比SD-10更遠,即使面對“陣風”掛載的“流星”導彈也不會遜色,而新型近距格斗導彈PL-10E結合頭盔瞄準具,比“陣風”使用的“米卡”導彈還具有一定的優勢。

The test JF-17Block3 is not yet equipped with airborne radar. According to Pakistan's official information, the aircraft will be equipped with active phased array radar with models selected in both the KLJ-7A and LKF601E radars. No radar can be less than 150 km in detection, and the improved advanced avionics system, as well as all kinds of open-air missiles, anti-ship missiles, air-to-air missiles and precision guided bombs, can fully achieve the ability to attack the air, ground and sea, and become the backbone of Pakistan's air force equipment sequence. Especially in the mission of seizing air superiority, the PL-15 mounted by JF-17Block3 has a longer range than the SD-10, even in the face of the \"meteor\" missile mounted by the \"gust \", and the new close combat missile PL-10E combined helmet sight has a certain advantage over the\" Mika \"missile used by the\" gust \".

  隨著中巴關系的不斷深入以及美國對巴基斯坦空軍F-16戰機的限制,JF-17系列戰機愈發成為巴基斯坦空軍的“定海神針”。當前,印度方面已經開始接收“陣風”F-3戰斗機,同時繼續對蘇-30MKI進行深度改進,巴基斯坦空軍對先進戰斗機的需求實際上是越來越迫切。JF-17以明顯低于西方四代機(國內標準3代)價格,且沒有附加政治條件的優點,解決了巴基斯坦國防預算有限、主力戰機缺乏的燃眉之急。

With the deepening of China-Pakistan relations and U.S. restrictions on Pakistani Air Force F-16s, the JF-17 series has grown to be a \"Dinghai needle \"for the Pakistani Air Force. At present, India has begun to receive \"gust\" F-3 fighters, while continuing to make deep improvements to Su-30 MKI, the Pakistan Air Force's demand for advanced fighter jets is actually becoming more and more urgent. JF-17 addresses Pakistan's urgent need for a limited defence budget and a lack of major aircraft, with prices significantly lower than those of the Western four-generation aircraft (3 generations of domestic standards) and without political conditionality.

  客觀說,在JF-17研制之初,巴基斯坦空軍對其定位較為模糊。由于長期使用美制戰機,即便是80年代末,美國空軍拒絕巴空軍購買的F-16C/D的請求后,后者依舊在嘗試通過各種渠道來軟化美國態度,但結果顯然易見,巴空軍并沒有如愿。

Objectively speaking, at the beginning of the development of JF-17, the position of the Pakistani air force was rather vague. Even in the late 1980s, after using long-standing US warplanes, the latter was trying to soften American attitudes through a variety of channels after the Air Force refused to buy the F-16C\/D.

  然而,巴空軍這一狀態并未持續多久。這一切的改變,來源于中國航空技術的突飛猛進。首先是巴空軍提出在殲-7基礎上全新研制一款新型全天候、超視距戰斗機,其實質是在殲-7M的各項指標上全面拓展,大幅強化對地攻擊能力,用以替換老舊的幻影。這一方案,巴空軍稱之為“佩刀-2”,中國方面則稱之為殲-7CP,也就是著名的“超-7”項目。

However, the air force has not lasted long. All this change comes from the rapid development of Chinese aviation technology. First, the Pakistani air force proposed a new all-weather, over-the-horizon fighter based on the J-7, its essence is to expand the J-7M indicators, greatly enhance the ability to attack the ground, to replace the old phantom. The plan, known to the Pakistani air force as the \"saber-2,\" and the Chinese as the J-7CP, the famous\" super-7\" project.

  不過后續由于當時的中國航空工業仍缺乏國際戰斗機研發經驗,所以中方提出的方案最終沒有被巴基斯坦方面所采納,在暫緩研制后,中方重新調整方向確立了FC-1“梟龍”戰斗機項目,最終“守得云開見月明”。雖然中間還是有一些波多折,但是項目的推進讓巴基斯坦空軍有了一款“保底”的戰機,他們確信,無論是選裝意大利雷達還是中國雷達,搭配法國的“米卡”還是中國的“閃電-10”,其都能獲得最為基本的全天候、超視距能力。這對面臨嚴重威脅的巴空軍來首,無疑是一針“強心劑”。

However, since China's aviation industry still lacked experience in the development of international fighter jets, China's proposed plan was not adopted by Pakistan. After the suspension of the development, China re-oriented the FC-1\" Xiaolong \"fighter jet project, and finally\" keep the cloud open to see the moon. Although there are still some waves in the middle, the advance of the project gives the pakistani air force a \"guaranteed\" fighter plane, who are convinced that the most basic all-weather, over-the-horizon capabilities are available, whether it's italian radar or chinese radar, with france's mika or chinese lightning-10. This is a serious threat to the Pakistani air force to head, no doubt a needle \"heart agent.\"

  盡管在巴基斯坦空軍的心中,JF-17并不完美,但其無疑比擬的優點,依舊滿足了巴空軍的所有日常需求。甚至巴空軍對編號為05、06的JF-17原型機進行摸底試飛時,驚奇地發現:這種戰機實際上比預期中的性能要好得多。

Although JF-17 is not perfect in the Pakistani air force's mind, its undoubted advantages still meet all its daily needs. Even when the air force tested the prototype JF-17, numbered 05 and 06, it was surprised to find that the aircraft actually performed much better than expected.

  伴隨著美巴關系的趨冷,前文提到的那份協議讓巴基斯坦空軍更加認識到能擁有一款完全自主權的主力戰機的重要性,與其遙望水中月,不如攥緊手中花,抓在手里的才是自己的,這堅定了巴基斯坦與中方合作深度改進JF-17的決心。

As the US-Pakistan relationship cooled, the agreement that was mentioned gave Pakistan's air force a greater sense of the importance of having a fully self-owned main fighter jet, instead of looking into the water and moon, it was their own.

  正因如此,我們看到了巴基斯坦本土化生產JF-17系列戰機的一系列動作,看到了JF-17不斷推陳出新、分配次改造的發展脈絡,看到了這個系列戰機執行越來越多的多用途任務。

Because of this, we have seen a series of actions of the localized production of the JF-17 series of fighters in Pakistan, the development of the JF-17's continuous innovation and the allocation of secondary transformation, and the increasing number of multipurpose missions carried out by the series.

  這其中反艦能力是一個值得一提的話題。1971年的第三次印巴戰爭讓巴方印象深刻。由于巴軍方裝備和指揮的問題,被印度海軍打上門,直接導致巴基斯坦被拆分為兩個國家。至此之后,巴基斯坦對反艦能力的建設就極為重視。JF-17戰斗機自然也被寄予厚望。2018年,巴基斯坦方面進行了一場演習,其


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